The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chromium on enzymatic activity of sorghum genotypes grown under polluted conditions. Two weeks after sowing, seedlings of grown plants were irrigated with eight levels of chromium Cr VI concentrations 0, 2. Samples of plants were taken three times at 8th, 12th, and 15th days after chromium application to measure the enzymatic activity, namely, malate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase. The results revealed that the level of enzyme activity increased significantly with increase in chromium concentration.
Artistic research[ edit ] The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines. As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis.
It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context. This may be factual, historical, or background research.
Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research. Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: Documentary research Steps in conducting research[ edit ] Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.
The major steps in conducting research are: Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified.
A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question.
The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis.
The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research. The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated.
At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results. Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other scientist of the 20th century.
This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure: Exploratory researchwhich helps to identify and define a problem or question.
Constructive researchwhich tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question. Empirical researchwhich tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. There are two major types of empirical research design: Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research This involves understanding human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior, by asking a broad question, collecting data in the form of words, images, video etc that is analyzed, and searching for themes.
This type of research aims to investigate a question without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time-consuming and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.
Quantitative research This involves systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships, by asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze it utilizing statistical methods.
The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlational, and survey or descriptive. Quantitative research is linked with the philosophical and theoretical stance of positivism. The quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories.
Growth in a Time of Debt Carmen M. Reinhart, Kenneth S. Rogoff. NBER Working Paper No. Issued in January , Revised in December NBER Program(s):International Finance and Macroeconomics, Monetary Economics We study economic growth and inflation at different levels of government and external debt. IBM Research is the innovation engine of the IBM corporation. It is the largest industrial research organization in the world with 12 labs on 6 continents. IBM Research defines the future of technology. The experiment: Say you have just conducted the Milgram pfmlures.com you want to write the research paper for it. (Milgram actually waited two years before writing about his study.) Here's a shortened example of a research article that MIGHT have been written.
If the research question is about people, participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments this is the only way that a quantitative study can be considered a true experiment. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants.
Primary data is data collected specifically for the research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.
For example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up with a quantitative study to gain additional insights. As such, non-empirical research seeks solutions to problems using existing knowledge as its source.Quality academic help from professional paper & essay writing service.
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Outstanding research and analysis underpins everything we do, from policymaking to providing secure banknotes. The Bank aims to attract and develop world-class researchers and foster an environment that supports creative freedom and engagement with global research communities.
Volume 6, No. 2, Art. 43 – May Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method. Barbara B.
Kawulich. Abstract: Observation, particularly participant observation, has been used in a variety of disciplines as a tool for collecting data about people, processes, and cultures in qualitative pfmlures.com paper provides a look at various definitions of participant observation, the.
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