Federations and other forms of state[ edit ] A map of Argentinashowing its twenty-three constituent provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires A map of the United Mexican States Mexicoshowing its thirty-one constituent states and Mexico City A map of the United States of America showing its fifty constituent states and the Federal District A map of India, showing its twenty-eight states except Telangana and seven union territories including the National Capital Territory of New Delhi.
Commonwealth of Australia, consisting of its federal districtAustralian Capital Territory redthe states of New South Wales pinkQueensland blueSouth Australia purpleTasmania yellow, bottomVictoria greenWestern Australia orange and the territories of Northern Territory yellow, top and Jervis Bay Territory not shown.
On the 1st of January the nation-state of Australia officially came into existence as a federation. The Australian continent was colonised by the United Kingdom inwhich subsequently established six, eventually self-governing, colonies there. In the s the governments of these colonies all held referendums on becoming the unified, self-governing "Commonwealth of Australia" within the British Empire.
When all the colonies voted in favour of federation, the Federation of Australia commenced, resulting in the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in The model of Australian federalism adheres closely to the original model of the United States of America, although it does so through a parliamentary Westminster system rather than a presidential system.
Aided by well-known jurist Ruy BarbosaFonseca established federalism in Brazil by decree, but this system of government would be confirmed by every Brazilian constitution sincealthough some of them would distort some of the federalist principles.
Brazil also uses the Fonseca system to regulate interstate trade. Brazil is one of the biggest federal governments. The Brazilian Constitution of introduced a new component to the ideas of federalism, including municipalities as federal entities. Brazilian municipalities are now invested with some of the traditional powers usually granted to states in federalism, and they are allowed to have a Constitution like the Constitution of Rio Grande do Sul State Main article: Canadian federalism In Canada, the provincial governments derive all their powers directly from the constitution.
In contrast, the territories are subordinate to the federal government and are delegated powers by it. Under the Constitution Act previously known as the British North America Act ofspecific powers of legislation are allotted.
Section 91 of the constitution gives rise to federal authority for legislation, whereas section 92 gives rise to provincial powers. For matters not directly dealt with in the constitution, the federal government retains residual powers; however, conflict between the two levels of government, relating to which level has legislative jurisdiction over various matters, has been a longstanding and evolving issue.
Areas of contest include legislation with respect to regulation of the economy, taxation, and natural resources. Federalism in India Indian state governments led by various political parties The Government of India referred to as the Union Government was established by the Constitution of Indiaand is the governing authority of a federal union of 29 states and 7 union territories.
The government of India is based on a 3 tiered system, in which the Constitution of India delineates the subjects on which each tier of government has executive powers. The Constitution originally provided for a two-tier system of government, the Union Government also known as the Central Governmentrepresenting the Union of India, and the State governments.
Later, a third tier was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities. In the current arrangement, The Seventh Schedule of the Indian Constitution delimits the subjects of each level of governmental jurisdiction, dividing them into three lists: Union List includes subjects of national importance such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency.
The Union Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the Union List.
State List contains subjects of State and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation. The State Governments alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the State List. Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments, such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession.
Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on the subjects mentioned in this list. If their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the Union Government will prevail.
Asymmetric federalism[ edit ] A distinguishing aspect of Indian federalism is that unlike many other forms of federalism, it is asymmetric.
Coalition politics[ edit ] Although the Constitution does not say so, India is now a multilingual federation.Search form. Search. Announcements.
Archives; Email Subscriptions; The Court. Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States of America under the Constitution of. W elcome to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York. The Eastern District has 26 Article III Judges and 18 Magistrate Judges.
The district comprises the counties of Kings, Nassau, Queens, Richmond, and Suffolk and concurrently with the Southern District, the waters within the counties of Bronx and New York. The official home page of the New York State Unified Court System.
We hear more than three million cases a year involving almost every type of endeavor. We hear family matters, personal injury claims, commercial disputes, trust and estates issues, criminal cases, and landlord-tenant cases.
The Washington Supreme Court’s nine justices will travel to Walla Walla to hold a community visit at Whitman College next month. During the visit, the justices will speak to several of the college’s classes, hold a panel discussion and hear arguments in two real cases that are open to the public.
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